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In lexical semantics , opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, like the opposite pairs big: The notion of incompatibility here refers to the fact that one word in an opposite pair entails that it is not the other pair member. For example, something that is long entails that it is not short. It is referred to as a 'binary' relationship because there are two members in a set of opposites. The relationship between opposites is known as opposition. The term antonym and the related antonymy is commonly taken to be synonymous with opposite, but antonym also has other more restricted meanings.
Graded or gradable antonyms are word pairs whose meanings are opposite and which lie on a continuous spectrum hot, cold. Complementary antonyms are word pairs whose meanings are opposite but whose meanings do not lie on a continuous spectrum push , pull. Relational antonyms are word pairs where opposite makes sense only in the context of the relationship between the two meanings teacher , pupil.
These more restricted meanings may not apply in all scholarly contexts, with Lyons , defining antonym to mean gradable antonyms, and Crystal warns that antonymy and antonym should be regarded with care.
Opposites are simultaneously different and similar in meaning. Typically, they differ in only one dimension of meaning, but are similar in most other respects, including similarity in grammar and positions of semantic abnormality. Additionally, not all words have an opposite. Some words are non-opposable. Other words are opposable but have an accidental gap in a given language's lexicon. For example, the word devout lacks a lexical opposite, but it is fairly easy to conceptualize a parameter of devoutness where devout lies at the positive pole with a missing member at the negative pole.
Opposites of such words can nevertheless sometimes be formed with the prefixes un- or non- , with varying degrees of naturalness. For example, the word undevout appears in Webster's dictionary of , while the pattern of non-person could conceivably be extended to non-platypus. Opposites may be viewed as a special type of incompatibility. This incompatibility is also found in the opposite pairs fast: An antonym is one of a pair of words with opposite meanings.
Each word in the pair is the antithesis of the other. A word may have more than one antonym. There are three categories of antonyms identified by the nature of the relationship between the opposed meanings. Where the two words have definitions that lie on a continuous spectrum of meaning, they are gradable antonyms. Where the meanings do not lie on a continuous spectrum and the words have no other lexical relationship, they are complementary antonyms.
Where the two meanings are opposite only within the context of their relationship, they are relational antonyms. A gradable antonym is one of a pair of words with opposite meanings where the two meanings lie on a continuous spectrum. Temperature is such a continuous spectrum so hot and cold , two meanings on opposite ends of the spectrum, are gradable antonyms. There is no continuous spectrum between odd and even but they are opposite in meaning and are therefore complementary antonyms.
A relational antonym is one of a pair of words with opposite meanings, where opposite makes sense only in the context of the relationship between the two meanings. There is no lexical opposite of teacher , but teacher and pupil are opposite within the context of their relationship. This makes them relational antonyms.
Some planned languages abundantly use such devices to reduce vocabulary multiplication. An auto-antonym is a word that can have opposite meanings in different contexts or under separate definitions:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs attention from an expert in Linguistics. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Linguistics may be able to help recruit an expert.
It's a fish unilaterally entails It's an animal. It is unilateral, i. The party commenced at midnight entails The party began at midnight AND The party began at midnight also entails The party commenced at midnight. The sentences 'X is blue all over' and 'X is red all over' are contraries since both cannot be simultaneously true.
Propositions that cannot be simultaneously false e. It's dead and It's alive are said to be in a contradictory relation. For example, a rabbit might be fast compared to turtle but slow compared to a sport car. It is essential when determining the relationships between the lexical meaning of words to keep the situational context identical. Lexical item Lexicon Lexis Word. Controlled vocabulary English lexicology and lexicography International scientific vocabulary Lexicographic error Lexicographic information cost Linguistic prescription Morphology Specialised lexicography.
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