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The report includes 13 case studies of businesses with strong ties to both the United States and Australia. These are the result of discussion with a broad array of business leaders throughout Australia. Up to a third of global web traffic goes through Amazon Web Services. From Netflix and Airbnb to data-mining economists, AWS allows users to have dramatically more computing power and server capabilities in a cloud format at a fraction of the price of traditional onsite facilities.

Like any business decision, the reasons AWS chose to open up a regional hub in Sydney are multifaceted, but they include the importance of geographic proximity in terms of latency the time it takes for a cloud-based service to respond to a request by a user [2] and that there is an important and growing Australian user base for cloud computing services.

Most notably, however, AWS believes that the best locations attract the best employees, which in turn help attract and retain the best customers. Given its desirable and family-friendly environment as well as reputation for early adoption of new technology, AWS found Australia to be the sort of location that encourages this valuable chain binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical.

The roughly well-remunerated AWS employees in Australia are clearly binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical benefit to Australia — and the service itself has helped local companies, like software company Atlassian and online marketplace Freelancer. The multiplier effect of the AWS platform itself, however, has arguably created the greatest benefit to Australia. This, in turn, has provided demand for a larger local AWS presence.

With this expanded footprint, AWS has been able to do more collaborative local development of its innovative services. This type of symbiotic product tailoring has created significant local demand for IT professionals certified to operate systems that use the AWS platform.

There binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical currently 5, open job requests in Australia requiring AWS certification while it is predicted binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical a further 50, such certified users will be needed in the coming years. This is an essentially new source of medium-skilled, high-wage jobs but, just as importantly, the very presence of these jobs strengthens the platform, creating new benefits to Australian corporate and government users of AWS, as well as leading to further employment opportunities for Australian IT professionals binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical including at AWS itself.

The treatment of tens of thousands of Australians suffering from difficult to treat illnesses. One of the largest independent biotechnology firms in the world, southern California-based Amgen researches, develops, and manufactures drugs used to combat difficult to treat illnesses ranging from cancer and osteoporosis to kidney and cardiovascular disease.

A leader in binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical human genetics, Amgen focuses on a small binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical of highly-specialised drugs for areas of high unmet medical need — having produced a total of 15 drugs since its founding in Two of its most well-known and highest-selling drugs include Prolia to treat osteoporosis, and Neulasta, which builds white blood cells to reduce infection in chemotherapy patients.

Having been in Australia for 26 years of its year history, Amgen has treated tens of thousands of Australians. By nature, clinical trials are time-consuming, complex, and expensive. To be done correctly, they require an entire ecosystem being in sync. Good physicians, strong intellectual property protections, and a stable binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical environment with little sovereign risk are just some of the necessary components.

Australia is made all the more attractive as an investment location for biotechnology research and development given its high-quality research institutions, the binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical nature of its medical standards to other developed countries, and the fact that the country has all of these binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical on an island — naturally allowing for a targeted and limited market.

In alone, Amgen ran more binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical 40 different studies at sites across the country involving more than 1, patients, with a significant portion of the research focusing on haematology, oncology and cardiovascular disease. The deep and established ties that Amgen has established from years of research and development have only further solidified the necessary foundation to allow for further biomedical research in Australia.

The economic multiplier effects of such research are immense: Austal is a Perth-based binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical and defence contractor with shipyards in Australia, the United States, and the Philippines. While most shipbuilders at the time of its founding were focused on steel and fibreglass hulls, Austal consciously chose to design and build aluminium vessels. It has only recently added steel as an option for military vessels.

The Binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical shipyard now serves as the centre of manufacturing for two high-speed aluminium ship classes for the US Navy: The LCS is uniquely capable of anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures, and surface warfare. The EPF allows for the rapid deployment of troops and cargo with limited port infrastructure. A foreign-owned company operating a major manufacturing hub in the United States is a difficult and rare enough task unto itself, but to focus solely on sales to the US military — infamous for its byzantine procurement process — is another obstacle altogether.

Rothwell attributes his US success to a number of reasons that acutely demonstrate the benefits of both the Australian business environment and close military and cultural ties between the United States and Australia. The fact that Australians in the United States are well-liked, culturally aligned, and operate similarly helped Binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical a lot, he said. The strength of the military relationship and high levels of trust between the United States and Australia cannot be overemphasised in facilitating an agreement in which Austal, a foreign-owned company with commercial but not military success in Australia, bought US facilities for building critical US military warships.

The trust relationship also goes both ways: Since then, Bechtel has been involved in a large number of significant projects in Australia, ranging from the mining sector and LNG installations to power stations and telecommunications infrastructure.

A number of these projects have been the first of their kind in Australia, such as the Curtis Island LNG facility off the coast of Queensland, near the city of Gladstone.

The local employment and contracting impact was significant. Remarkably, the company sees the possibility of further LNG expansion, as well as further work in the mining sector. This will present engineering challenges that Bechtel sees as opportunities. It is now involved in the Australian defence and infrastructure sectors. This includes the remediation of old defence bases to form part of urban renewal and housing expansion projects — particularly around some of the very expensive Australian cities, such as Sydney.

Because of the importance of minimising transmission costs, local data centres are vital, but clients demand world-leading technology. Bechtel has also benefited from the wanderlust nature of the Australian workforce — not only willing to go overseas but eager. The Bechtel experience highlights the knowledge spillovers and community ties — especially in regional centres — that overseas engineering and project management investment brings.

Relatively small shifts in the attractiveness of the investment environment may have little observable effect on investment, unless a sufficient number of negatives add up to a company moving out of Australia completely. Today, Boeing has more than 3, employees across seven wholly-owned subsidiaries located in 27 locations throughout the country.

Because it takes a long-term view of its business and where its resources should be located to best serve its customers, Boeing continues to invest in its Australian operations. Boeing has invested in manufacturing upgrades at its Fishermans Bend facility in Melbourne, as well as new facilities for its defence team in Brisbane and Adelaide. She said there are a number of reasons for this sustained engagement. Firstly, Australia is a fundamentally democratic country with rule of law and transparency similar to the United States.

Secondly, Boeing has major military and commercial sector customers in Australia. As a US-owned company, the military component in particular would obviously be more difficult to navigate if Australia did not have such extremely close US ties. Partnerships with local universities such as the University of Queensland, Queensland University of Technology, and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology as well as CSIRO, the federal government agency responsible for scientific research in Australia, have not only helped to drive innovation in aerospace systems design, development and manufacturing.

Such partnerships, particularly with universities, have also given Boeing the critical ability to develop a pipeline for future talent. The Victorian team is the sole supplier of many of the moveable trailing edges, such as wing flaps, of one of the most technically advanced planes in the world, the Dreamliner.

Founded in by two Stanford University computer scientists trying to connect different computer systems, Cisco is a Silicon Valley-based technology company that connects, secures, services, and produces a binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical array of ubiquitous technologies ranging from office phones with integrated video collaboration, to internet modems and machine learning networks, to energy management software.

Australia is considered an early adopter of technology. When Cisco entered the cloud computing sector in Australia, it rose to first in market share faster than anywhere else, Fawcett said. And when Cisco entered the Internet of Things arena, it similarly rose to first in market share faster than anywhere else in the world — faster than the United States, Japan, or the United Kingdom, according to Fawcett. In many ways more remarkable, however, is the considerable amount and diverse ways in which Cisco has invested in Australia.

While many technology companies seek to transform certain businesses, Cisco investments in Australia clearly demonstrate how it is binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical to also transform cities binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical governments around the world. In partnering with industry, government and local universities, Cisco has established innovation centres in Perth and Sydney. The innovation centres provide access to technology expertise, development equipment, investment funds, and other key innovation ingredients to start-ups, industry experts, developers and researchers in an open environment of collaboration.

The innovation centres are currently focused on developing new solutions through the Internet-of-Things technology to agriculture, transport, and natural resources sectors. Cisco has also invested in and partnered with promising Australian technology firms.

One such example is the Adelaide-based Cohda Wireless, which specialises in connections between self-driving cars. In trying to address the ever-increasing shortage of students with strong STEM science, technology, engineering, maths foundations, Cisco launched two components to support and increase STEM education in Australia. Cisco, Fawcett said, sees itself as a key facilitator for that transition.

Citi Australia is the largest international bank in Australia binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical was among the first foreign banks to be granted a banking licence in Although Citi has a modest-sized retail banking operation — it has around 0.

Also, being the largest credit card issuer in the world, it brings scale and innovation to the Australian market, where it holds an 11 per cent share. The global network that the New York-based Citi has is critical for its Australian clients. The firm started moving outside the United States more than a century ago and now operates in countries, with a consumer presence in 19 markets around the world. Being the most international bank in the world, it can binary options system 99 trucking australia mathematical its network to bear for its Australian clients throughout all its product offerings.

One of the most striking things that comes through in the Citi experience is the fundamental importance of US debt markets — and the key role that US financial institutions play. This happens through direct access to US markets for some companies, but for many small and medium enterprises SMEs it is the funding that the Big 4 banks are able to access from the United States that flows on into Australia — allowing significant lending to the SME sector.

The United States is the largest and most sophisticated capital market in the world, dwarfing Europe in its importance for Australia.

Human capital and knowledge transfer is also crucial. It is common for Australian Citi executives to spend a decade or more in overseas markets before returning home to Australia, bringing skills and perspectives that can benefit their local colleagues.

Citi sees this with its clients, too. Expertise and knowledge transfer has been particularly important in the LNG sector, for example. In terms of Australia as a destination for foreign investment, global competitiveness is the key dynamic. The corporate tax rate is important — particularly since Australia is now one of the highest taxing OECD countries, whereas in the early s it was one of the lowest.

Personal income tax rates are also important for attracting management talent. Part of bolstering that lifestyle dividend is about the physical infrastructure of cities themselves, which has implications for amenities, commuting times, and quality of life more generally. One of the largest retailers in the world, Costco is a wholesale, membership-only warehouse club known for its discounted prices for bulk purchases of consumer goods.

Targeted towards both households and small to medium businesses, Costco sells a diverse array of goods, ranging from groceries, apparel, and home electronics, to tyres, office equipment, and furniture. Only eight years after opening its first Australia warehouse, Costco now has eight locations in the areas of Melbourne, Sydney, Canberra, Brisbane, and Adelaide.

In implementing a business model developed in a more competitive retail market, Costco has not only taken some of the market share from Coles and Woolworths duopoly in a relatively short amount of time, but it has also helped make a distinct impact on their prices. Despite these efforts, however, one recent analysis determined that Costco is still 27 per cent cheaper than Coles and 24 per cent cheaper than Woolworths on a number of products. In addition to more competitive prices, Costco has also pushed Australian retailers and vendors to embrace the latest global retail trends, from more organic offerings to new packaging concepts, such as bulk packaging.

Most retailers around the world focus on cutting employee costs as much as possible to increase profit. Since its founding, however, Costco has subscribed to the belief that better compensated and happier employees will lead to a better customer experience.

As a multinational corporation, Costco prides itself on bringing the best from around the world to each store at the lowest possible price. That has most clearly been demonstrated in bringing foreign brands to Australia, but also has included helping Australian goods — ranging from Uncle Tobys muesli bars to Tasmanian farm-raised salmon — to go global by being sold in Costco warehouses around the world.

Although membership-only warehouse shopping is a staple of many American households, Costco was a relatively foreign concept to most Australians before it opened its first warehouse in

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