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The Marquesas Archipelago is a group of twelve volcanic islands located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, about miles northeast of Tahiti and miles southwest of Mexico, the closest continental landmass.

Steep volcanic mountains plunge straight to a rough ocean, and jagged ridges separate the deep valleys. There are no reefs or lagoons surrounding the islands, so the Pacific Ocean pounds on their windward coasts.

Nuku Hiva, located on the northwestern edge of the central group, is the largest enana trading options of the Marquesas. Starting from Asia, Polynesian people migrated slowly through the enana trading options of the southwest Pacific Ocean in forty-to-sixty foot ocean-going canoes until they eventually arrived in the Marquesas sometime between and years ago.

Throughout the island there are many archaeological sites, including houses, shrines, ceremonial sites, agricultural terraces and burial grounds that testify to the existence of an old civilization Sumner-Fromeyer.

The settlers brought with them many useful plants and animals, such as breadfruit, taro, pandanus and yams Suggs. Even with these introduced crops to help them, life for the Marquesans was tough. Initially, they settled near enana trading options coast and depended heavily on the ocean for resources. Bones and fishhooks found enana trading options the oldest coastal sites suggest that their main sources of protein were fish, turtles and seabirds Sumner-Fromeyer.

As the population increased, the settlers began to move inland. Artifacts found from this period, such as peelers and pounders, suggest that agriculture was developing into an important resource Sumner-Fromeyer. The rugged landscape and undependable climate made sustaining a human population sometimes difficult.

Breadfruit was an important staple in the Marquesan diet, as it grew well and could be preserved for time of need. Herman Melville describes the preparation of breadfruit dishes in much detail in his book Typee, as breadfruit enana trading options prominent in the island diet he experienced. There were various methods of roasting the breadfruit in the fire, but the most important dish made from breadfruit was Poi-Poi, and its preparation was a big event.

When the majority of the breadfruits were ripe, all the islanders assembled to harvest the fruit. The preparation of Poi-Poi was complicated. The breadfruit would be worked with a stone pestle until it reached a doughy consistency. Then, wrapped in leaves, it would be buried and allowed to ferment. It could remain in this state until it was needed, sometimes for years, and in this way the islanders were enana trading options to stock up for frequent times of drought and shortages.

Enana trading options removed from the ground, the fermented breadfruit is heated on embers then mixed with water until it gains the stretchy pudding-like consistency for which it is famous. An island ecosystem enana trading options finite. It can only sustain a large population for a limited amount of time before its resources can no longer support them.

The population of the Marquesas continued growing and by AD all habitable land was populated and people were even living enana trading options the eastern coast, which has little precipitation and rocky soils Suggs.

The growing population led to resource competition between the enana trading options. Hostilities and fighting developed, adding to the aggressive warrior aspect of their culture. Fortified sites were built to protect the valleys. Captain David Porter, who visited the islands indescribed these forts in his Journal of a Cruise:.

The manner enana trading options fortifying those places, is to plant closely on end, the bodies of large trees, of forty feet in length, and securing them together by pieces of timber strongly lashed across, presenting on the brow of a hill, difficult to access, a breast-work of considerable extent which would require European artillery to destroy.

At the back of this a scaffolding is raised, on which is placed a platform for the warriors, who ascend by ladders, and thence shower down on their assailants spears and stones. The conflicts between the isolated valleys of the island contributed to the development of cannibalism. Many human bones have been found amongst animal bones indicating that cannibalism has long been part of Marquesan culture Enana trading options. It probably enana trading options during this period as a result enana trading options the pervasive violence.

Warriors killed in battle were eaten by the victors as a way to absorb their strength. When the inhabitants of some sequestered island first descry the big canoe of the European rolling through the blue waters towards their shores, they rush down to the beach in crowds, and with open arms stand ready to embrace the strangers.

They fold into their bosom the vipers whose sting is destined to poison all their joys; and the instinctive feeling of love with their breast is soon converted onto the bitterest hate. Contact with the outside world was not beneficial for the Marquesan population. A number of factors contributed to this decline in the population and culture of the Marquesas.

They had no resistance to the diseases brought by the Europeans and could not cope with the effects of alcohol and guns. This, combined with continued inter-tribal warfare, brought the population from a pre-contact estimate of about 90, to 5, at the first census in Sumner-Fromeyer. French military enana trading options, civilians and missionaries worked together to discourage anything relating to traditional culture.

Tattooing, chanting, carving, dancing and beating drums were all outlawed, and much knowledge was lost. Much of what is now part of the local Marquesan tradition and culture has been relearned from European accounts or artifacts that the early visitors took from the islands.

Tattoos in the Marquesan society defined status and wealth to the point that tattooed and untattooed people would not associate with one another. Enana trading options used tattoos to mark important life events such as puberty, enana trading options, childbirth, and victories in battle Baker.

As result of the ban on tattoos put in place by the missionaries, the art of tattooing had been lost in the Marquesas by the mid-nineteenth century Baker. The modern Marquesas Islands are considered an administrative subdivision of French Polynesia, an overseas territory of France. With this designation comes some autonomy.

However, France still controls areas relating to police and justice, monetary policy, tertiary education, immigration, defense enana trading options foreign affairs Suggs. On a local level a state administrator governs the Marquesas from Taiohae, on Nuku Hiva. The rest of the islands are broken up into six municipalities, each of which has an elected mayor and council Suggs.

This system of government has not been beneficial for the Marquesas. The French appear disinterested in the Marquesas, and Tahitian politics have had a fairly pro-Tahitian orientation for the past twenty-five years. Without the money and support they receive from France, the Marquesas would have an even more limited economy, and with an uncertain flow of funds, access to many of the modern necessities upon which people have come to depend would be compromised.

These imports, items such as cars, fuel, food, medicine and really anything that cannot be made on the island, comes on a cargo ship every two to three weeks. The main population center is located in Taiohae Bay. The government offices, a post office and the bank are to be found here. There are also several small convenience stores, which supply the basic modern goods which the islanders do not produce for themselves. The selection, especially of food supplies, is limited to processed and frozen enana trading options most of the locals have other access to produce and meat.

There is a Catholic church, and both public and enana trading options schools in town. Taiohae is connected to the other valleys of the island by steep, winding enana trading options. Small towns are located in the enana trading options valleys of the island, which consist of a group of houses along the road and maybe a general store.

The infrastructure on Nuku Hiva is fairly simple. Water is potable everywhere on Nuku Hiva except in Taiohae. The local government tried to remedy this problem by installing water filters, but they unfortunately malfunctioned within forty-eight hours of their inauguration and were too expensive to replace. Garbage is dumped in a landfill on the enana trading options outside of Taiohae. Sewage is collected in community septic tanks. Access to education beyond middle school in the Marquesas is limited.

Public schools in the islands only go through middle school, so students who wish to continue their education travel to high school in Tahiti. The one option for a high school level enana trading options in the Marquesas is a private Catholic school in the bay of Taiohae which provides vocational training at the high school level in agriculture and other trades.

Students at enana trading options school are also able to take more academic classes and earn enana trading options high school diploma. Marquesan students who leave the islands to be educated elsewhere frequently return home without graduating.

Those who succeed in academics rarely return to their island home. University-bound students usually end up in school either at the University of French Polynesia enana trading options Tahiti or at universities in France or Australia. As a result, the population of the Marquesas is generally not educated beyond a middle school level. Tourists have enana trading options in Tahiti in for a long time, but they have been slow to get to the Marquesas in numbers that would make a difference to the economy.

Since the late s, many of the tourists found in the Marquesas sailed there on private yachts Ivory, They did not bring in much money, as their only business was to purchase provisions and maybe buy a few trinkets with enana trading options to remember the Marquesas.

Inthe airport was built in Tahiti, and many Marquesans moved there to take advantage of the jobs created by the construction, nuclear testing, and tourism in the area. Presently, about 10, people of Marquesan descent live in Tahiti Ivory, In the s, a domestic airport was opened on Nuku Hiva. It is served exclusively by Air Tahiti. Since this airport is only domestic, foreign tourists must still pass through Tahiti to travel by air to Nuku Hiva.

Though tourism to Nuku Hiva is somewhat limited, it is still one of the main industries simply because other industries are even more limited. Tourists who come to Nuku Hiva are of a different type than those who vacation on Tahiti. Nuku Hiva does not have a large city or widely developed infrastructure. There is no fringing reef for those interested in scuba diving or snorkeling to see coral reef environments.

However, there is one dive company on the island, which advertises the opportunity to dive with larger sea creatures, such as hammerhead sharks, dolphins, rays and moray eels Tahiti Guide. The main attractions enana trading options hiking, visiting archaeological sites and horseback riding. Many of the accommodation options on Nuku Hiva are family-owned guesthouses that are not listed in major guidebooks.

There is only one big hotel, located in Taiohae. Farming is another component of the Marquesan economy. Copra, noni, fruits enana trading options vegetables are the main agricultural products of the Marquesas. Incopra had the largest yield, producing 1, tons, then noni at tons, with fruits and vegetables coming in at a combined tons ISPF. Not all the farming on Nuku Hiva is commercial. Most households, especially in more rural areas, have their own fruit trees which produce more fruit than the family could possibly eat.

Private vegetable gardens are enana trading options common and a weekly market is set enana trading options for buying and selling produce. Unemployment is high throughout the islands and some young men have taken up hunting feral goats and boars as a way to provide for their families Witting.

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