File and directory management
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This name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 grounds you in the basic Linux commands for manipulating files and name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7. You can add more branches to this tree name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 mounting them and remove them by unmounting them.
Mounting and unmounting is covered in the tutorial on Mounting and unmounting of filesystems. In this tutorial, we practice the commands using the files created in the tutorial " Learn Linux Text streams and filters. If you didn't, then you can use another directory on your system to practice the commands discussed in this tutorial.
This series of tutorials helps you learn Linux system administration tasks. Linux Server Professional Certification exams. See " Learn Linux, A roadmap for LPIC-1 " name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 a description of and link to each tutorial in this series.
The roadmap is in progress and reflects the version 4. As tutorials are completed, they will be added to the roadmap. This tutorial helps you prepare for Objective The objective has a weight of 3.
To get the most from the tutorials in this series, you should have a basic knowledge of Linux and a working Linux system on which you can practice the commands covered in this tutorial. Sometimes different versions of a program format output differently, so your results might not always look exactly like the listings and figures shown here. Unless otherwise noted, the examples in this tutorial use Ubuntu Your results on other systems may differ.
You can display the name of the current working directory with the pwd command. It is also usually available in the PWD environment variable. Listing 1 shows the use of the pwd command, and three different ways to use the ls command to list the files in this directory.
As you can see, you can give a relative or absolute directory name as a parameter to the ls name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7, and it will list the contents of that directory.
On a storage device, a file or directory is contained in a collection of blocks. Information about a file is contained in an inodewhich records information such as the owner, when the file was last accessed, how large it is, whether it is a directory or not, and who can read from or write to it.
The inode number is also known as the file serial number and is unique within a particular filesystem. By default, the ls command does not list special files, those whose names start with a dot. Every directory other than the root directory has at least two special entries: The root directory does not have a parent directory.
Listing 2 uses the -l and -a options to display a long format listing of all files including the. In Listing 2, the first line shows the total number of disk blocks 52 used by the listed files. The remaining lines tell you about the directory entries. The -i option of the ls command will display the inode numbers for you.
You will see inodes again later in this tutorial and also in the tutorial Create and change hard and symbolic links see the series roadmap.
You can also specify multiple parameters to the ls command, where each name is either that of a file or directory. For directory names, the ls command lists the contents of the directory rather than information about the directory itself.
In our example, suppose we wanted information about the lpi directory entry itself as it is listed in the parent directory. The command ls -l. Listing 3 shows how to add the -d option to list information about directory entries rather than the contents of directories and also how to list entries for multiple files name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 directories. Note that the modification time for lpi is different from that in the previous listing.
Also, as in the previous listing, it is different from the time stamps of any of the files in the directory. Is this what you would expect? However, in developing this tutorial, I created some extra examples and then deleted them, so the directory time stamps reflect that fact. You learn more about file times later under Handling multiple files and directories.
By default, ls lists files alphabetically. There are a number of options for sorting the output. For example, ls -t sorts by modification time name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 to oldest while ls -lS produces a long listing sorted by size largest to smallest.
Adding -r reverses the sort order. For example, use ls -lrt to produce a name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 listing sorted from oldest to newest. Consult the man page for other ways you can list files and directories. You have now learned some ways to create files, but suppose you want to make copies of files, rename files, move them around the filesystem hierarchy, or even delete them.
You use three short commands for these purposes. If you are used to a Name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 or Windows system, you might find it strange to use mv to rename a file. Linux does have a rename command, but it has different syntax from the DOS and Windows commands of the same name. See the man page for details on how to use it. Listing 4 illustrates the use of cp and mv to make some backup copies of our text files.
You also use ls -i to show inodes for some of your files. Normally, the cp command copies a file over an existing copy, if the existing file is writable. On the other hand, the mv does name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 move or rename a file if the target exists. There are several useful options relevant to this behavior of cp and mv. As usual, consult the man pages for full details on these and other options for copying and moving. Note that the rm command also accepts the -i interactive and -f force options.
Once you remove a file using rmthe filesystem no longer has access to it. This is also a good idea for ordinary users if you are nervous about what you might accidentally delete. Before this discussion concludes, you should note that the cp command defaults to creating a new time stamp for the new file or files.
The owner and group are also set to the owner and group of the user doing the copying. You can use the -p option to preserve selected attributes. Note that the root user can be the only user who can preserve ownership. See the man page for details. You have already seen how to create a directory with mkdir. Now, let's look further at mkdir and introduce rmdirits analog for removing directories.
Suppose you are in our lpi directory and you want to create subdirectories dir1 and dir2. Fortunately, mkdir has a -p option that allows it to create any name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 parent directories, as shown in Listing 7. Removing directories using the rmdir command is the opposite of creating them. Again, there is a -p option to remove parents as well. You can remove a directory with rmdir only if it is empty as there is no option to force removal.
You'll see another way to accomplish that particular trick when you look at recursive manipulation. Once you learn this, you will probably seldom use rmdir on the command line, but it is still good to know about it.
You then used rmdir to remove all the directories you just created with mkdir. As you can see, d1 and d2 were not removed because d2 was not empty. The other directories were removed. Once you remove the copy of text1 from d2, you can remove d1 and d2 with a single invocation of rmdir -p. Up to now, the commands you have used have operated on a single file or perhaps a few individually named files.
For the rest of this tutorial, you look at various operations for handling multiple files, recursively manipulating part of a directory tree, and saving or restoring multiple files or directories. The ls command has a -R note uppercase "R" option for listing a directory and all its subdirectories. The recursive option applies only to directory names; it does not find all the files called 'text1', for example, in a directory tree. You can use other options that you have seen already along with -R.
A recursive listing of our lpi directory, including inode numbers, is shown in Listing 9. You can use the -r or -R or --recursive option to cause the cp command to descend into source directories and copy the contents recursively. To prevent an infinite recursion, you cannot copy the source directory itself. Listing 10 shows how to copy everything in your lpi directory to a copy1 subdirectory.
You use ls -R to show the resulting directory tree. I mentioned earlier that rmdir only removes empty directories. You can use the -r or -R or --recursive option to cause the rm command to remove both files and directories as shown in Listing 11, where you remove the copy1 directory that you just created, along with its contents, including the name globbing and recursive directories under windows 7 subdirectory and its contents.
If you have files that are not writable by you, you might need to add the -f option to force removal. This is often done by the root user when cleaning up, but be warned that you can lose valuable data if you are not careful.
Often, you might need to perform a single operation on many filesystem objects, without operating on the entire tree as you just did with recursive operations. For example, you might want to find the modification times of all the text files you created in lpi, without listing the split files. Although this is easy with our small directory, it is much harder in a large filesystem. To solve this problem, use the wildcard support that is built in to the bash shell.