English Phrasal Verb Dictionary: M

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A feature common to all Indo-European languages is the presence of verbin m verb corresponding to the English verb to be. Though in some languages it verbin m vestigial, it is present nonetheless in atrophied forms or derivatives.

This verb has two basic meanings. In a more heavily marked context it expresses existence I think therefore I am ; the dividing line between these is not always easy to draw. Some languages have shared these functions between several verbs: Irish, Spanish and Persian all have multiple equivalents verbin m to bemaking a variety of distinctions.

Verbin m functions verbin m from language to language. For example, although in its basic meanings, to be is a stative verbEnglish puts it to work as a dynamic verb in fixed collocations You are being very annoying. The copula is the most irregular verb in many Indo-European languages. This is partly because it is more frequently used than any other, and partly because Verbin m offered more than one verbin m suitable for use in these functions, with the result that the daughter languages, in different ways, have tended to form suppletive verb paradigms.

This article describes the way in which the irregular forms have developed from a series of roots. This verb is generally reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European thus: This is the verbin m of the English infinitive be and participle been Germanic participles have the suffix in -an.

This verb can be reconstructed as follows: See Germanic strong verb: This has been claimed as the origin of the Old Norse and verbin m Scandinavian languages ' present stem: Donald Ringe argues that the copula was sometimes unaccented in Pre-Proto-Germanic, which would have then triggered the voicing under Verner's law. On the absence of the initial s- in Celtic, see Indo-European s-mobile. See verbin m Romance copula. Although in Dutchthis verb retains its primary meaning of "stand", it is also used in an auxiliary-like function that only has a secondary meaning of "standing".

For example, in ik sta te koken "I stand while cooking"the emphasis verbin m on the act of cooking, and the implication of standing while doing so is only secondary, and may even be completely irrelevant the performer of the emphasized action might just as well be sitting. When it is not a full copula it can normally only be used as an auxiliary with another verbit does have shades of meaning that resemble that of the Italian sto cucinando "I am cooking".

German "stehen" also exhibits a similar secondary meaning as a copula in certain locative phrases. For example, "Das Auto steht da" "the car is over there" lit. Paradoxically, despite verbin m fact that Persian is apparently the only Indo-European language that has created an existential verbin m out of the copulait has simultaneously made an extreme use of the latter to produce verbin m general paradigm for conjugating all Persian verbs.

Modern Persian nouns and pronouns have no grammatical gender ; thus, all pronouns are neutral, e. In the conventional transliteration of Iranian languages: As an example, in the following sentences, the present forms of the verb 'to be' are used as copulas or predicates: An old declensional suffix -ad is still verbin m instead of ast for 3rd person singular in present-tense and subjunctive conjugation of Persian verbs.

However, what is linguistically notable, is the emergence of an existential be out of the copulaverbin m hast exists out of ast ' is. The evolution of this verbin m form, might go back to ancient Iranian languages, where ast could have two variants cf. In the next phase, what we may call a pseudo-verb appeared, vis. We may therefore deduce that neither hast exists nor its derived pseudo-verb hastan to exist can be negated at all, unless reduced to copulas!

Of course in colloquial Persian, hastan can be also used for emphasis to express predication in the present tense. Strictly speaking, hastan is only a theoretical infinitive, verbin m lexical. Except for Latin, the older Italic languages are very scarcely attested, but we have in Oscan set they arefiiet they becomefufans they have been and fust he will beand in Umbrian sent they are.

This section will explain Latin, and the Romance languages that have evolved from it. For simplicity, the table below has only the full conjugation of the present tense, and the first-person singular forms of some other tenses.

In several modern Romance languagesthe perfect is a compound tense formed with the participle as in English, but the old Latin perfect survives as a commonly used preterite in Verbin m and Portuguese, and as a literary " past historic verbin m in FrenchItalian and Catalan.

There is a tendency for a past participle derived from stare or more verbin m its supine, statum to replace that of the main copula derived from esse. For further information, see the main Romance copula article. In the preterite, however, the paradigms fell together. Old English has no participle for this verb. The plural forms in Modern Swedish indicated in brackets were in common use in formal written language until the midth century, but are now no longer in use except in deliberately archaising texts.

The preterite subjunctive is also increasingly being replaced by the indicative. In the Celtic languages there is a verbin m between the so-called substantive verbused when the predicate is an adjective phrase or prepositional phrase, and the so-called copulaused when verbin m predicate is a noun. The conjugation verbin m the Old Irish and Middle Welsh verbs is as follows:.

Welsh mae originally meant "here is" cf. In verbin m Gaelic, person inflections have almost verbin m, but the verbin m and interrogative are marked by distinctive forms.

Gaelic bh eil and Irish bh fuil are from Old Irish fuiloriginally an imperative meaning "see! Gaelic robh and Modern Irish raibh are from the perfective particle ro ry in Welsh plus ba lenited after ro. The present tense in particular shows a split between the North and the South. Though the situation is undoubtedly more complicated, King notes the following variations in the present tense as spoken not as written according to the standard orthography:.

Note that, for example, the spoken first person singular verbin m i'n is a contraction of the formal written yr ydwyf fi yn. Bod also has a conditional, for which there are two stems.

The bas- verbin m is more common in the North, and the bydd- stem is verbin m common in the South:. The Albanian copula shows two distinct roots. The imperfect continues the PIE imperfect of the same root but was rebuilt based on the 3rd person singular and plural. Analogical or otherwise indirect reflexes are italicized below. From Wikipedia, the verbin m encyclopedia. Verbin m article contains characters used to write reconstructed Proto-Indo-European words.

Without proper rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode combining characters and Latin characters. This section may be too long verbin m read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings. A History of English: Retrieved 9 February Hittite and the Indo-European Verb. Brill, Schleicher's fable The king and the god. Retrieved from " https: Articles containing Church Slavonic-language text Articles containing Russian-language verbin m Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February Articles that may be too long from June Articles containing Welsh-language text.

Verbin m Read Edit View history. This page was last edited on 7 Aprilat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. For other persons the conjugation has to use enclitic verbin m. However, as it is said, the 3rd person singular has no ending in the verbin m of " hastan ".

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There was great commentary on my last post. I learned a lot from your words. One comment in particular has stuck with me. It concerned the formation of a how-to be-healthy booklet. An information manual, if you will. Bookstores have entire sections of self-help books.

There are manuals on healthy cooking, healthy living, healthy this and healthy that. What I was thinking about is something simpler, more to the core of the current crisis in health. It helps me understand things. What I found struck me:. Together, there has to be a selection. We have to choose health. On an individual patients level, one has to choose the healthy way. This is not complicated.

The table of health has only four legs: Every literate human in the Western world knows the basics. They just have to choose. Doctors also have to choose. We have to make a selection. Do we select the easy course, which is to ignore the elephant in the room and keep making marginal changes in medicines, perform procedures and surgery? Do we choose to care enough to address the root cause of disease?

Does the vascular surgeon keep bypassing blocked blood vessels in the patient who keeps smoking? Do we care enough to choose to engage the root cause of this crisis? Educators have really important choices to make. Those who have dedicated their life to the well being of children must reject the path we are on, and select a healthier course. A commenter made reference to eliminating physical education from schools. And finally, Society must choose. The choices we have made here are highlighted when one gets off a plane from Europe.

The people of the United States of America have made an obvious choice about their health. If we care about our vitality, there must soon be another selection. Anything more complicated than a simple choice obfuscates the problem. Americans must decide what it will be. Will we continue on the path we are on, or will someday, society wake up and decide that healthy is normal?

I was the second fastest kid in grade school. I just stuck with it — for the next fifty years. It turns out that my appetite has always been for what can only be described as the Mediterranean diet — with nuts. Forty years of eating well — as far as can be told from any medical consensus. This involves a catch Foods good for diarrhea are high glycemic. Have the AF ablation NOW, instead of waiting for a greater medical understanding and technical improvements to come along in some distant, unforeseeable future.

Not to take statins — increased risk of diabetes and muscular debility are too much to take on. Besides, what is true about cholesterol? Does a high total really count as bad? Does a good ratio really count as good? Is it even the cholesterol? Which hypertension medications, keeping in mind the many side effects that can exacerbate other existing conditions? Like, Jeff, I am also a lifetime athlete in my mids who has recently learned that, despite making all of the right choices recommended by Dr.

And now that my afib has been corrected and I have started to resume some of my former activities, I find out that I have a bad hip that will probably need to be replaced. Each individual that makes up a society is just that. The protocol of healthy choice. Whenever it comes up I have to force the doc to see me as an individual. I find it to be necessary for a positive outcome. For Jeff — NO easy answers.

They are all different. That said — I think integrated in your insightful comments is how the clinician who does care for the patient profile you present needs to be a good listener who is willing to work with the patient to help in deciding on the best choices given circumstances.

Much of Europe and the world follows the U. And not all of the U. I was born and raised in New York City — but moved away over 40 years ago. Return to that city a few years ago was tremendously gratifying to me because on the whole, the population featured VERY FEW significantly overweight individuals. On the contrary — it seemed everyone in Manhattan walked! If you consider us outliers as a valuable resource and do the hard and expensive work to figure out why our various systems fail early — having always done the four things right — then maybe you will have discovered something more basic, more profound, about the nature of human wellness.

Jeff — I believe there has been some misunderstanding with what I wished to convey. Please let me clarify the 3 messages that I meant to convey:. I believe that between the two of you — the chances are good that there can be meaningful improvement in your overall health situation.

So far so good. The team seems to work pretty well. It seems to me that profiles such as mine might provide an opportunity to see more deeply into the nature of health and aging exactly BECAUSE of my exceptions. In science or math you always look at the extremes, or exceptions, to understand. Healthy choices involve understanding long-term consequences from short-term decisions. In a society where people expect rewards immediately how capable are patients of making those healthful choices without guidance?

As teachers Docere, latin to teach our job is to partner and help them make those choices. But all quarters of our culture conspire against us, from the time allowed to spend with patients to the corporate greed that consumes us. On doing enough — nothing is ever enough, if we define enough as never having a health issue.

We all die from something eventually. Some of us die from something no one could do anything about. Bad stuff happens, even when everyone does everything right. Maybe, but mostly it makes them human. Having some understanding and expectation about the arc of our lives is another characteristic that makes us human.

On being average — A statistician runs across a man with his head stuck in a block of ice and his feet on fire. The statistician walk by and waves. Are they outside typical expectations because real anomalies happen or because the medical community does not yet understand them?

What ARE the good choices? But what about the micro-choices? We were told at one point to keep out of the sun and use the highest SPF. D results in more cancers — including, ironically, skin cancers. We were told to avoid butter and use vegetable margarine instead.

Should we drink moderately? Is it for the benefits of the bit of alcohol, or for the resveratrol? Money is being made. So much is simply unknown. What were the magic words the researchers discovered? Patients are the experts in what is important to them. What I found struck me: Selection of a path. Rejection of an alternative. This is one of the many reasons why I am just a doctor and not a famous self-help author.

The state of US health: The truth stings Concierge medicine makes everyday a snow day. Implications for impending health care reform… Success in heart health stems from the simple… Success in heart health stems from the simple….